Kitchener’s One Hundred were young surgeons, many frest out of university, who answered an urgent plea from the British War Ofiice in early 1915. Lord Kitchener, British Secretary for war, and winston Churchill knew the death and injury rate would be high in the campaigns in Europe and at Gallipoli. Most of the young doctors were Australian but three were from England, two from New Zealand and one from Fiji. They were also elite sportsmen, loved by their communities , with close family ties to Britain. Oswald Barton was the son of Australia’s first Prime Minister.